Musculoskeletal System .. Muscles, whether large or small, are made up of tissues and fibers. They are both contractile and extensible, and the number of tissues in a muscle depends on the size of the muscle.
These tissues are composed of small fibrils, within which there are nerves that give motor orders. The muscular system in the human body has several functions and tasks, which we will mention in detail.
What is the human muscular system:
The muscular system (Musculoskeletal System) .. In the human being is one of the most important organs that the human body contains, which contributes to the movement of the body and carrying out its daily functions and tasks, as it is a very natural system of harmony and harmony.
It consists of three types of muscles; cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and involuntary smooth muscle.
First: Skeletal Muscles:
They are muscles that a person can control through his ability to extend or contract them at any time he wants, and are located between the skin and the skeletal system, and these muscles are connected to the bones by ligaments called strings, and these tendons are made of strong white material that resides in the head Muscle, and the shape of the skeletal muscles is fusiform, meaning that it is wide in the middle and narrow at the ends.
Among the most important skeletal muscles are the finger and hand muscles, the neck muscles, which control the movement of the head, and the shoulder muscles. The number of skeletal muscles reaches (600) six hundred muscles.
And the skeletal muscles are divided into:
- Circular muscles, such as the muscles of the eyes and mouth.
- Flat muscles (like the temple muscles).
- The Pennate Muscles, which can have one, two or three feathers sometimes.
- Fusiform Muscles.
- Convergent Muscles It ends with a tendon problem.
- Quadrate muscles are quadriceps like the abdominal muscles.
And skeletal muscles are the ones that control the main control of all voluntary movements of the human body.
Second: Smooth muscle involuntarily:
They are the muscles of the digestive wall, the respiratory system, the urinary tract, and the blood vessels, and they were called this because no bumps were seen on them even under a microscope:
- The involuntary smooth muscle is closely linked with the nervous system (Nervous system) so that the movement of muscles occurs after the issuance of orders from the involuntary nervous system, and this involuntary movement occurs during sleep or wakefulness alike.
- Smooth muscles form the internal organs of the smooth body such as the respiratory tract, the digestive system, the vascular muscles, and the diaphragm muscle.
- The smooth muscles that control the body’s unconscious activities such as digestion, urination and body tremors.
- And that any hair in the human body is linked to a smooth muscle is involuntary.
Third: Cardiac Muscle / Myocardium:
The most important muscle in the human body and upon which the work of all other muscles of the body depends, and the occurrence of death, is an involuntary muscle whose work is regular and continuous, and its shape has the same shape as the skeletal muscle:
- It forms the wall of the heart.
- The heart muscle is characterized by its strength to be able to perform the greatest function in the human body, to pump blood to all parts and parts of the body, and for this reason, if any failure occurs in the heart muscle, all body systems and activities will be affected.
Musculoskeletal system functions:
The muscular system in humans is one of the most important devices in the human body, and the number of muscles in it is (650) six hundred and fifty muscles, and muscles have a major role in the implementation of many important functions such as:
- Protecting the body from the influence of any external influences that it may be exposed to, through muscle relaxation and contraction until the body takes the appropriate position.
- The ability to speak, speak and move the tongue.
- Work to maintain the balance of the internal temperature of the body, and supply it with the necessary heat.
- Work to maintain the normal blood pressure level in the body by working through diastole and constriction of the arteries.
- Helping improve digestion.
- The ability to pump blood to all parts of the body, that is, to provide complete food by the heart muscle.
- Help and aid the body’s metabolism (metabolic dysfunction).
Musculoskeletal system diseases:
The diseases that can affect the muscular system affect the skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and the heart muscle, and this leads to the suspension of the work of some parts of the human body, and sometimes leads to death, and for this reason the diseases of the muscular system are considered very serious.
Many diseases affect muscles in different stages of life, and these diseases are the cause of weakness and weakness of those muscles, and there are also other diseases that affect the nerves that encapsulate muscles, and these diseases include:
- Muscle cramp:
A muscle strain is known as a painful and involuntary contraction of the muscle, and it is a sudden condition that reflects an involuntary contraction of one or more muscles, and that all the muscles of the body are susceptible to twitching muscle spasms, but the rate of injury to the muscles of the feet and calf muscle is higher than the rest of the other muscles.
To date, medicine has not been able to know the main cause of spasticity, knowing that the spasm resolves on its own without treatment.
Among the causes of spasticity and muscle tightening is excessive muscle activity, or staying for a long period of time sitting in the same position, and there are a number of causes of spasticity that must be diagnosed medically, which are (lack of blood supply and narrowing of blood vessels that supply blood to the extremities, and this is an indication of a narrowing in Blood vessels in the body), and to prevent muscle spasms, the fluid balance in the body must be maintained.
- Fibromyalgia (FIPROMYALGIA):
It is muscle pain with disturbances in memory, sleep and mood, and fibromyalgia may develop gradually.
It is also possible for the patient to become infected due to infection or severe tension, and so far there is no cure for fibromyalgia, but there are some treatments that relieve pain, and relaxation is useful with some exercise.
- Polymyositis (POLYMYOSITIS):
The irritation and inflammation of the muscles leads to their weakness during a long time, and this inflammation can affect any muscle of the body, and until now medicine has not been able to know the causes of infection, but some expectations consider the infection as a result of a viral infection, or because of some drugs, or because of a response The immune system.
The disease is accompanied by symptoms: (joint pain, swallowing disorder, shortness of breath, and cardiac arrhythmias).
- Myasthenia gravis (MYASTHENIA GRAVIS):
The attack of the immune system in the body on the nerve endings connected to the muscles and responsible for their movement, this disease is considered an autoimmune disease, in which the voluntary or skeletal muscles weaken as a result of the disease, and there is no cure so far, but some treatments are available to reduce the severity of the attack.
- Muscle dystrophy (MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES);
- It is muscle atrophy (atrophy) or muscle degeneration (degeneration), which is a comprehensive name for a wide range of diseases, and also under this heading, diseases such as diseases of the spinal cord (Medulla spenalis), motor neuron disease and multiple sclerosis (MS) are mentioned.
- The type of muscle disease is defined according to clinical symptoms, and the common symptom of all types of muscular dystrophy is that it causes advanced muscle weakness and usually appears in the proximal muscles in the extremities, and in other cases, distal muscles, facial muscles and facial muscles Al-Ain, and the names of diseases are determined according to the affected muscles, and despite the great development and success in the field of diagnosis, there has been no development in treatment except for physical therapy and alternative therapy.
- Dermatomyositis (DERMATOMY0SITIS):
Inflammatory muscle diseases belong to the list of autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and all age groups are vulnerable to this disease, where the average age of infection for children is (10) ten years and the average age of infection for adults is (45) Forty-five years and the incidence rate for women is two and a half times higher than for men, and the percentage is equal among children.
Polymyositis leads to inflammation of the skeletal muscles, especially the muscles near the spine, and in cases that are associated with inflammation of the skin called the disease called dermatomyositis, (Dermatomy0sitis).
The symptoms of polymyositis and dermatitis are as follows:
The first symptoms of the disease appear in the form of muscle weakness in (50%) of cases, but slowly and without pain and lasts for a period of (3) three months to (6) six months, and in a third of cases the symptoms appear for a period of several weeks, and in a few cases no The disease is diagnosed only after several years have passed.
Muscle weakness causes the patient to stagger while walking, and he finds it difficult to climb stairs and stairs, and to move from a sleep state to a sitting state, and when the muscles of swallowing and speech are injured, hoarseness and difficulty swallowing occurs.
A purple or red rash appears when the skin is infected, this rash affects the face, the bridge of the nose, the eyelids, the neck and the chest from the front and back, and skin lesions may appear in the area of small joints, and sometimes blueness appears in the fingers as a result of injury to some small blood vessels.
As for the risks and causes of muscle and skin inflammation, the causes are still not clearly known until now, and there is an imbalance in the immune system, which leads to the proliferation of inflammatory immune system cells, which leads to the secretion of substances that stimulate infections, and there is some evidence and is uncertain that the infection is caused by Bacterial infection such as viruses that may make the immune reaction disturbed, and inflammation may occur due to taking some medicines, such as medicines that reduce blood serum fats, and medicines that reduce stomach acidity.
As for the complications of polymyositis and dermatitis, it is the connection between it and polymyositis and carcinomas, and it has not been definitively confirmed, and the incidence of malignant infection reaches (50%) of the cases that precede the disease of muscle infections of the skin.
As for the diagnosis of the disease, it is:
The presence of inflammation in the biopsy taken from the muscle tissue that is being tested, and there is weakness in the proximal muscles, and the percentage of enzymes in the blood that comes out from the affected muscle, in addition to the appearance of the characteristic rash of the disease, and the change in muscle functions is noted upon examination Electrocardiogram her.
Note: The presence of the first four signs confirming the diagnosis and the presence of the disease, as for the presence of three indications that increase the possibility of the presence of the disease, and the presence of two signs with the last item confirms the possibility of myositis and dermatitis.
The treatment of dermatitis and nerves takes a long time because it is a chronic disease and sometimes life-long treatment is required, and cortisone and its derivatives are given in large doses, as well as we need to take other drugs such as (Azathioprine) and metotrexate (Meth0rexate) that suppress the immune system and reduce the consumption of cortisone.
In case the previous treatments failed, there is another way, by introducing Immunoglopulin intravenously, and the patient is followed up by monitoring the level of muscle enzyme in the blood, and monitoring muscle strength over time.
- Rheumatic muscle pain (POLYMYALGIA RHEUMATICA):
Rheumatoid muscle disease is the same disease as arthritis, and is characterized by the sudden onset of pain around the shoulders, neck, thighs, and buttocks, accompanied by muscle stiffness and lack of flexibility.
This pain usually appears in the early morning hours, affecting adults and those over the age of fifty (50) years, and the incidence increases as the person ages.
Rheumatic muscle pain affects more women than men and causes unbearable pain at first, but there is an effective treatment for patients.
- Symptoms of the disease are:
The emergence of pain in the neck, shoulders, buttocks and in the neck area, stiffness in the joints and lack of flexibility, pain in the joints of the hands, lack of appetite with weight loss, fatigue and a feeling of resentment and boredom, inflammation of blood vessels, especially in the arteries of the neck and head.
Headache and jaw pain during chewing, and sometimes eye or brain arteries injury, in which case sudden blindness or cerebral palsy occurs.
The disease is diagnosed according to the characteristic symptoms of the disease, the presence of inflammation of the temporal arteries must be examined, and if arteritis is suspected, a biopsy of the temporal arteries is taken and the presence of inflammation is analyzed.
And for the disease is a good and useful treatment with drugs, the group of corticosteroids (CORTICOSTEROIDS) have proven useful in treating rheumatic muscle pain and a dose of (PREDNISONE) of (15 mg – 20 mg) per day improves the patient’s condition after three days of use.
As for the side effects of these drugs, they are mild, such as an increase in appetite, which sometimes increases weight, and an imbalance in the balance of diabetic patients.
The dosage is reduced within several months with the control of the disease, and in the event of the disease returning, the dose is increased temporarily, then the dose is re-reduced until the end of the treatment, which extends for a period of one to four years.
Causes of diseases of the musculoskeletal system:
There are many causes of disease in the muscular system, including:
- Not eating healthy food is one of the most important reasons that affect the health of the human body in general and the muscular system in particular, as the muscular system is one of the body systems most affected by food and its quality.
- Hypothyroidism is one of the main causes of the disease.
- Many diseases of the muscular system are caused by accidents to which humans are exposed.
- Also, genetic factors (Genetic Disease) play an important role in injury and disease occurrence in the muscular system.
- Not using or neglecting a muscle, it atrophies and over time leads to its disease.
- Also, aging is one of the most important causes of diseases of the muscular system.
Methods for preventing diseases of the muscular system (Musculoskeletal System):
Since this device is one of the most important devices in the body, which means that taking care of it is one of the first duties that we must perform, because its injury may impede a person and the inability to follow life, so we have to protect this device and work to prevent infection from diseases that reduce its cost-effectiveness With the following:
- A healthy diet is at the forefront of taking care of the device and preventing it from infection, to maintain the health and strength of the muscles.
- Eating a lot of water is of great importance to the health of the muscular system, as water is the secret of the existence of life, and it has many benefits for human health, as water makes up more than half of the human body.
- Movement, exertion and work on practicing various sports, because laziness and not using muscles leads to atrophy and laziness, and thus to infection, which leads to a person being unable to do what is required of him.
- Commitment to warming up before doing exercise or exercising.
Muscle is a fibrous tissue that is characterized by the ability to stretch and contract, to secure movement for the organism, and the muscle consists of muscle bundles that in turn consist of muscle fibers (cytoplasm), the muscle fiber membrane called sarcoplasm, and the muscle fiber membrane called (Sarcolema) The muscle segment is composed of protein filaments (Actin) and (Myosin).
We have talked in this article about a vital system of the devices that the human body contains, which is the muscular system, and it is considered the most important vital system for the continuation of the life of living organisms, and we talked about the definition, structure, and the diseases that can affect this organ and the ways to prevent them. I have succeeded in providing useful and correct health information together, and God is the Grantor of success.