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Black Sea geography, tourism and great geographical location


The tourism sector occupies the first place in the Black Sea region in conjunction with its natural resources and geographical location as the most important sector in the future and for the next 40 years for all the areas surrounded by this sea where the tourism sector rises to the first place in the Black Sea and world tourism is constantly increasing.

All of this we will get to know with this view of the Black Sea so come with us.

Why is it called the Black Sea?

  • In cloudy weather and under black clouds the sea surface darkens (this is believed to be why the Black Sea got its name Black Sea).
  • There is another reasonable assumption about the origin of the name of the Black Sea where for a long time it was known that all the organisms that were in its depths turned black due to the fact that the waters of the Black Sea at a depth of more than 200 meters are enriched with hydrogen sulphide (this substance easily forms black salts with all minerals) where in the lower soil (silt) hydrogen sulfide is discovered in millimeters below its surface, so the shells on the ground turn black and can always be found in black. On the beach.

The natural geography of the Black Sea

The Black Sea is the inland sea of the Atlantic Basin where the shores of Ukraine, Russia and Georgia as well as Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey.

The Kerch Strait is linked to the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, the Marmara Sea and the Dardanelles On the Mediterranean Sea.

The sea area: 422,000 km, total water volume 547,000 cubic kilometers, average depth of 1,271 m, maximum 2,245 m, and coast 4.00 km.

The Black Sea between the western and eastern points is about 1,167 km north-south and 624 km long.

The land surrounds the Black Sea on all sides but is not a lake, it connects to the Mediterranean Sea via Bosphorus Strait The narrow and wider Dardanelles Strait where water is exchanged with the ocean across these straits is difficult so there are no tidal movements in the Black Sea.

Salty Black Sea:

The salinity of the surface reaches a depth of 100 meters.

Low salinity is the cause of the decline in biodiversity in the Black Sea, where the population of the seas and oceans does not tolerate a salinity of less than 20°C and therefore the relatively underwater world of the Black Sea is not very diverse.

Black Sea beaches:

They are few and mostly steep mountains.

The largest peninsula is Crimea and the largest bays (off the coast of Ukraine) are Karkinitsky, Kalamitsky, Feodosiya, Yagorlytsky, Dzharilgatsky.

There are a few islands (snake, Berezan, Dzharylgach).

Within Ukraine, the Danube, Dniester, south-south and Dnieper flow into the Black Sea, which has a major impact on the shaping of the water balance.

Black Sea Names

The Black Sea had different names in the past:

  • In the old days, arabs and Greeks called this sea the Sea of The Pentatz.
  • The ancient Greeks called it Pont Aksinski (In Greek: The Unhospitable Sea).
  • Some ancient writers called this sea the Squithian.
  • In the 9th century, the Black Sea was called the Pontic Sea (or Bonitsky).
  • Over time, the modern name (Black Sea) has taken root among different nations, perhaps because of the black color of the water at great depth.

Black Sea ranks first for tourism in Turkey

The Black Sea is considered the most important tourist attraction in Turkey, pointing out that it is an important source of income in the surrounding areas due to its diverse tourism wealth and geographical location, where it is believed that the most important sector is tourism in the Black Sea region, turkey's tourism sector has risen to the first place in the Black Sea , especially in the Region of Trabzon.

Black Sea region of Turkey

Geographical location

This area is located in northern Turkey and takes its name from the Black Sea in the north, where the area begins from the Georgian border in the east and extends to the east of Bilgek with the Sakarya Plain in the west.

The Black Sea is located in the Turkish region with an area of up to 18% of its surface area, the longest in the east-west direction, with the black sea area of Turkey being 1,400 km from west to east and 100 to 200 km wide in the north-south.

Mountains along the Black Sea

To the east is surrounded by the Caucasus Mountains and the Asteringa Highlands in the south-west, to the west by the Balkan mountains and to the south by the Black Sea mountain ranges, and the only port of the sea is the Bosphorus.

The mountains along the Black Sea are about 2,000 meters in the west, up to 1,000 meters in the middle of the Black Sea, and up to 4,000 meters in the east.

As a result of the stretch ing of the mountains parallel to the shore, the coasts are not comfortable except for the small bays where there is no indentation and a large infiltration of the coasts, which is why outside the port of Sinop, the Black Sea lacks the natural harbour to accommodate large ships.

The rise and direction of mountains in the Black Sea region also affects transport, climate and agriculture activities, where transport is provided outside the Black Sea.It crossed important corridors such as Zigana (Kalkanlı) and Kop.

The parallel between the mountains and the coast limits the presence of agricultural areas, and the presence of a high slope in the mountains make machine-use agriculture more difficult.

The existence of the vast area of mountains prevented the creation of large cities and caused cities to be close and small on the beach.

The high rainfall and slope and the presence of mud soil on the ground caused landslides in the area.

Features of soil in the Black Sea region

There are several types of balust-rich and acid-rich soil sand-rich soils in the region where acid interaction appears.

In the northern slopes of the Northern Anatolian Mountains, uncontaminated brown and black forests are common, and high chemical interaction on the soil surface facilitates the thickening of soil layers.

On the south-facing slopes of the same mountains where there is a decrease in rainfall and increased solar radiation and soil from the brown limestone forests is the budzol soil (fragile gray soil).

Rivers and lakes

The most important rivers in the region are Yselermak, Kislermak, Bart Coruh (the fastest flowing rivers from Turkey Stream) and YENİCE.

The currents of water that take their resource from the foothills of mountain ranges to the sea are dense due to abundant rainfall on the slopes in the form of small streams.

The lakes in the region are small, the most important of which is Turtom, Serra, Abant and Weidgler.

Climate and vegetation

  • The climatic conditions of the Black Sea are rainy every season and the difference in annual temperature is small where summers are cold and winters warm.
  • Rize (Riz) is the finest rainfall area in Turkey on the Black Sea where it is the province with the highest rainfall (the reason is that the high mountains in the south are perpendicular to the prevailing wind trend).
  • Mountains prevent wet air from passing through coastal areas to the interior parts and there are significant climatic differences between the coastal and inland parts of the region.
  • As the air moves inward from the shore the precipitation rate decreases and temperatures decrease due to snow where in the continental climate the summer is hot and winters are cold and cold.
  • Given the height and direction of the mountains, the spread of the marine climate in the Central Black Sea is wider than the East and the Black West.
  • In the Central Black Sea region, reduced rainfall has been observed due to the onset of mountains from the inside.
  • Rainfall increases westward again and exceeds 1000 mm per year.
  • In the coastal part of the eastern Black Sea, average winter temperatures do not decrease much so citrus fruits can be grown there.
  • The mountains facing the sea are covered with green forests due to rainfall, and in the interior the types of trees are increasing resistant to cold and form vegetation where they change due to the low temperature so that it increases along the slope of the beach.
  • In the area, 800 metres from the beach, there are flat leafy trees and mixed leaves with an area of 800 to 1,500 metres, pine trees in the area at an altitude of 1,500 to 2,000 metres, and mountain meadows 2,000 metres.
  • Agriculture does not need much irrigation as forest areas are wide.

Agriculture in the Black Sea region

Rainfall during each dry-off season in the summer (wheat, barley, oats, lentils and cotton are frequently cultivated).

In winter, high winter temperatures in the eastern Black Sea have facilitated the growth of products such as nuts, tea, citrus and olives.

Lack of rainfall in the interior leads to a lack of forest cover and the emergence of products such as grains and beets.

70% of the working population in the region earns a living from agriculture as you see the most fertile agricultural land on the slopes facing the north.

Some of the most important agricultural products in the region include:

  • Hazelnuts, tea, tobacco, apples, beets (sugar beet) and linen (hemp).
  • and soybeans and olives grown in the cold-protected Kuroh Valley basin,
  • Citrus fruits: because of the warmth of winter where they are grown.
  • And the Kiwi.

Animals in the Black Sea

  • Livestock activity in the region is an important economic activity where livestock are raised due to lush vegetation in the coastal area, high mountain meadows, rugged terrain and wet climate.
  • Livestock are common at the edges of the plains in the interior of the region.
  • There are 100 species of mammals, 360 species of birds, 200 species of fish, and 20 species of reptiles where this diversity is associated with soil and climate characteristics.
  • Animals have changed throughgeological times and historical times, in ancient times rhinoceros, giraffes, toothtigers, ostriches were found.
  • Later, with climate change, some species disappeared, but others emerged, with animals undergoing special changes associated with population growth and the environment.
  • Intensive fishing and active human activities have led to significant changes in the composition of species of animals, as many species today are rare and endangered and are included in the Red Book of Ukraine.


The Black Sea in the north of the region is rich in fish stocks and covers about 80% of the intaC Fish only from Turkey on the Black Sea although in recent years fish production has decreased due to overfishing and sea pollution.

There is no living life due to toxic gases in the Black Sea, which is more than 200 metres deep.

Beekeeping activities in the region, particularly honey, have also developed in the very popular Rizi Anzer region.

Industry in the Black Sea region

  • There is steel iron where iron ore extracted from Divriği (Sivas) is transported through samsun port.
  • Copper copper ore is processed in Murgul (Artvin) in Samsun copper plants (the reason is samsun's easy connection to the interior parts).
  • Sugar: Sugar produced from beets in the Black Sea region is processed in the Factories of Torhal (Tokat), Solava (Amasia) and Castamono Sugar.
  • Tobacco is processed in the Central Black Sea section of the Samson and Tokat cigarette factories.
  • There is a processing of hazelnuts, tea, paper and timber.
  • The region makes a significant contribution to the country's economy in terms of coal, forestry, seafood, tea, nuts, flax, cannabis, rice and soybeans.
  • Because of the terrain, lack of natural ports and the survival of major transport routes, development in the Black Sea region has slowed down.

Tourism in the Black Sea region

Natural beauty is at the forefront of tourism activity for the Black Sea region, where the Black Sea coast contains a wide range of plants, trees and landscapes that it has created.

Winter tourism is common in the Bolu Kartalkaya and Ilgaz mountains.

Lake Abant and summer resorts around Yedigöller, Bolu, Düzce, Kızılcahamam, thermal springs Amasra, Cide, Sinop Trabzon (Sumela Monastery) and Amasya (King's Tombs) are among the most important historical areas and tourist monuments of the Black Sea region.

Rafting is also available in the Çoruh River, and since the area is raining every season, marine tourism has not developed.

Blue in the Black Sea

Due to the low concentration of chlorophyll, blue comes from the rich yellow and green overlap in summer plankton, and from red algae.

It turns out that due to the unusually large flow of rivers into the Black Sea there is no diverse life but a large total mass.

The strong flow of nutrients (first and foremost nitrogen and phosphorus salts) with rivers sometimes leads to strong growth of single-celled algae such as plankton.

The sea water on the beach changes color (green, brown or red)

The transparency of the Black Sea waters in the coastal region rarely exceeds 7 meters, and the exception is the southern coast of Crimea, even in the summer, the water transparency reaches 15-20 meters.