Psychologists use a variety of methods to conduct assessments and arrive at recommendations. The key to a competent assessment of individuals is what is referred to as a multimodal assessment. Multimodal assessment involves the use of different methods from different scales (for example, different classes of tests, interviews, and review of records. Sources of security such as family members).
This approach alone ensures that the healthiest conclusions are drawn. As Professor Gregory Meyer of the University of Toledo said, “The evidence indicates that clinicians who use one method to obtain patient information regularly will be wrong” and this is due to what psychologists refer to as the “contrast method,” which is a fact. That individuals can appear differently when different methods of gathering information are used.
Thus, for example, a patient who is completely unstable during the interview may seem to have major illnesses at the level of personality inventory, and this may happen, for example, when the individual is reluctant to acknowledge certain symptoms or has discomfort with brainstorming in the face-to-face meeting, but is more revealing. Autonomously when filling out a test with paper and pencil.
What are the test results?
Patients may even give different results on different tests. A person who defensively conceals his answers in a “true or false” test may reveal a lot about himself in free-response tests such as the Rorschach test (which is one of the most popular and popular so-called projective tests that uses a smear of ink. On paper to measure the level of intelligence and innovation, the scientist Alfred Binet invented and developed it by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Ruschach to measure personality characteristics)
Of course, we must be aware that the opposite is also often true as well
Therefore, when we collect information from multiple sources and then combine this information into a comprehensive formulation, we are more likely to draw appropriate conclusions and make recommendations and referrals to (other doctors, courts, schools, etc.) who will find the most benefit from the information provided to them.
Types of personality analysis and assessment tests
Following this introduction, we will describe some of the common methods that psychologists use to conduct assessments:
1 – The interview
The simplest tool for gathering information is of course the interview where psychologists are trained to conduct the interviews in a way that encourages honesty, candor, and self-reflection.
Interviews may be structured (as a defined list of questions that do not differ), semi-structured (similar to structured interviews but with further presumption of follow-up questions etc.) or unstructured (open interviews whose subject matter is often dictated by goals and special requests that dictate the direction the interview takes. ).
Because which techniques are used usually depends on the purpose of the assessment. There are, for example, so-called “high-risk assessments” (eg criminal cases, screening of public safety personnel) and a more structured approach can be used to reduce the possibility of bias.
On the other hand, in clinical situations, a more unstructured approach is often indicated in order to foster a more therapeutic relationship and encourage the patient to think about himself or herself.
2 – Self-report tests
These paper-based tests with pencil, which are sometimes referred to as forced-choice tools, because the subject must choose between a limited number of possible answers (such as false or true, or a scale of 1-3, etc.) where the forms contain questions or phrases expressing the result about individuals. Those who take the test are they honest or not about themselves Some of these tests are designed to be one-issue tests, such as those designed to assess the level of depression or anxiety that a person suffers from, and others are comprehensive lists that give scores on multiple levels that measure different aspects of an individual’s personality. These lists have been drawn up. Experimentally.
This means that different scales are found to distinguish different groups of patients (for example, depression from schizophrenia) or to predict specific behavior patterns.
Interpretation usually involves analyzing the profiles and drawing a profile of the individual. This does not depend only on the scores on the individual scales but on the relationship between the scores on the various scales.
Examples of self-report exams
Although there are computer programs that do some interpretation work, highly trained psychologists can properly interpret an inventory file such as the “MMPI-2” Minnesota Multiphasic Character Inventory-2, a test used by psychologists and other mental health professionals. Various versions of it are available to aid in the development of treatment plans, differential diagnosis, assistance with answers to legal questions in forensic psychology, and the nomination of qualified persons during personnel selection processes or as part of my therapeutic evaluation procedures.
As well as the “The Personality Assessment Inventory” form or “PAI” or the so-called Personality Assessment Inventory, which is a self-administered test for evaluating mental illness syndromes and providing relevant information for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and examination for psychology.
In addition, most of these stocks have well-developed viability scales which are indicators designed to detect or underreport symptoms or conscious attempts at impression management.
3 – Performance-based tests
The other main category of psychological tools is called performance-based tests or free-response tests, and these tests are distinguished from self-report inventories, where the test subject is usually asked to do ambiguity, such as interpreting pictures of inkblots on paper or telling a story about an image or a video scene, or completing What sentences can be drawn different conclusions about the personality of the individual from the way in which he participates in this task and the tests depend on “free response” as there are no restrictions on what a person can say in response to the test.
These tests were called “projective” because it was believed that a person’s personality could be predicted according to his responses and answers. However, this term did not succeed because recent research showed that the response process is more complex than simply projecting the personality of the individual. In addition, there is little agreement among psychologists on the definition of The term projection.
Example of performance-based testing
The most well-known of these is the Rorschach test, which we explained a glimpse into at the beginning of the article and is usually referred to as the Inksible Rorschach method.
In recent years there has been some controversy over the Rorschach method that has made its way into the popular press, and although there are some psychologists who doubt this, the vast majority of evaluation psychologists find it a valid and useful way to assess personality because it is not an inventory of self-report. They are not subject to some kind of manipulation of answers and research has shown that conclusions drawn from Rorschach are just as valid as those from well-validated inventories. Rorschach appears to be more correct for certain types of questions and self-report inventories of others and is likely to result from a comprehensive evaluation that uses tools. From each of the two previous categories of tests, reliable information about the personality of the person being tested explains his personality.
Other articles that may interest you:
- Avoidant personality disorder
- What is a charismatic personality, what are its characteristics, and how do we easily acquire it
- Know yourself with the eight most important personality tests