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Risks of climate change and strategies to reduce it


Risks of climate change

Climate change is the variability of the Earth's climate system, which consists of the atmosphere, the water atmosphere, the ice sheet, the rock and the biosphere, which lasts for long periods and decades or more, until a new balance is reached. It can affect both average values Meteorology Their diversity and extreme phenomena.

It is a global challenge that has no borders, and combating it requires coordinated action by all countries. The concept of climate change is highly ignorance, either because of excessive information, inaccurate sources or misinformation of self-interest, leading to a series of false myths about climate change.

The most general term for the definition of climate change

A change in the statistical characteristics of the climate system is under study over long periods of time, regardless of the cause. Consequently, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades do not represent climate change.

The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to human-induced climate change, rather than changes in climate that may have resulted as part of the Earth's natural processes. Especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change has become synonymous with human-origin global warming.

When did man begin to affect climate change?

Experts coincide with the reference to the industrial revolution as a turning point at which greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere began to rise. It must be remembered that the industrial revolution was born of many other small revolutions such as: agricultural, technological, demographic, transportation, finance... that led to the emergence of a new model of production and consumption.

In addition to population growth and increasingly excessive consumption of resources, energy demand and production are increasing mostly through fossil fuels. They have caused the planet to enter the part of what the Anthropocene scientific community calls the New Geological Age, stimulated by the influence of humans on Earth.

Climate change linked to increased global warming

Current climate change is mainly associated with the intensification of the impact of global warming, due to industrial emissions from burning fossil fuels. Scientists are actively working to understand the climate of the past and the future through theoretical modelling and observations.

To do this, they compile a climate record of the Earth's distant past based on geological evidence from geotechnical surveys of thermal features, ice pulp, plant and animal records such as the growth of tree and coral rings, and ice operations and beyond.

Indicators of difference in climate change:

Peer analysis and other analysis of sediment layers and previous sea level records are important. Any long-term difference in these indicators may indicate climate change. The automated registry provides the latest data.

Examples include automatic atmospheric temperature recordings and atmospheric co2 concentration measurements. We must not forget the massive flow of climate data from orbiting satellites, which belong mainly to NASA's Earth observation programmes andEuropean Space Agency.

Climate change and its impact on natural and human systems

In recent decades, changes in climate have affected natural and human systems on all continents and across oceans. These impacts are due to observed climate change, regardless of its cause, indicating the sensitivity of natural and human systems to climate change.

The effects of the evidence on climate change are the greatest in terms of strength and inclusiveness in the case of natural systems. In many areas, changing rainfall or melting snow and ice leads to changes in hydrological systems and affects water resources in quantity and quality.

Climate change and its impact on plants and animals:

Climate change causes fires

Many species of plants, wildlife, freshwater animals and marine animals have undergone a shift in their geographical ranges, seasonal activities, migration patterns, abundance and interactions in response to climate change.

It covers a wide range of regions and crops, and the negative effects of climate change on crop yields are more common than positive ones.

Causes of climate change

The increase in emissions of man-made greenhouse gases, since the pre-industrial era, is driven largely by economic and population growth and is now higher than ever before. This has led to unprecedented concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere.

It has discovered its effects, along with those of other factors of ananagenic. Total emissions of man-made greenhouse gases continued to increase from 1970 to 2010, despite an increasing number of climate change mitigation policies.

Amount of greenhouse gas emissions in 2010

Greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 4.5 gigatons of CO2 equivalent per year. The number of people who have been reunited with the united nations has been very high.

The burning of fossil fuels and industrial processes accounted for about 78 per cent of the increase in total greenhouse gas emissions from 1970 to 2010, and contributed a similar percentage to the increase from 2000 to 2010.


Economic and population growth continues to be the main drivers of increases in co2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

The contribution of population growth between 2000 and 2010 remained roughly identical to that of the previous three decades, with a sharp rise in the contribution of economic growth.

Reasons for increased emissions affecting climate change

These causes, which result in the combustion of coal, oil and gas, include carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.

Logging in the rainforest (deforestation):

As we know, trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and therefore help regulate the climate. If cut, this beneficial effect will be lost, and carbon stored in trees will be released into the atmosphere and increase the greenhouse effect.

The evolution of livestock:

Cows and sheep produce large amounts of methane during digestion. Nitrogen fertilizers produce nitrous oxide emissions. Fluorinated gases cause a strong greenhouse effect up to 23,000 times greater than carbon dioxide. Fortunately, these gases are emitted in smaller quantities and EU law provides for their phase-out.

Causes and consequences of climate change

Climate change affects all regions of the world. The polar peaks will melt, and the sea level is rising. In some areas, extreme weather events and floods have become more frequent, and in others there are heat waves and droughts. Its consequences are likely to worsen in the coming decades.

Melting ice and sea level rise:

Melting ice due to climate change
  • The volume of water increases when heated. Global warming melts the ice sheets of the poles and glaciers.
  • The combination of these changes leads to higher ocean levels, causing flooding and erosion in coastal and low-lying areas.
  • Extreme weather conditions, increased rainfall, heavy rains and other extreme weather events have become more frequent and can lead to floods and degradation of water quality, and even in some areas to a gradual reduction in water resources.
  • The repercussions on Europe are witnessing increasing heat waves, forest fires and drought.
  • The Mediterranean has become a drier region making it more vulnerable to drought and fires.
  • In northern Europe it is clearly becoming a wetter area and winter floods may be more frequent.
  • Urban areas are exposed to heat waves, floods or sea level rise, and are often not well equipped to adapt to changes in climate.

Risks and impacts of future climate change

  • The risk of climate-related impacts arises from the interaction of climate-related hazards, including dangerous phenomena and trends of change, with the fragility and vulnerability of human and natural systems, including their resilience.
  • High rates and intensity of warming and other changes in the climate system, accompanied by ocean acidification, increase the risk of severe, widespread and, in some cases, non-reversible effects.
  • Some risks are particularly individual, while others will be global.
  • The effects of future climate change can generally be reduced by reducing the rate and severity of climate change, including ocean acidification.
  • A large proportion of species face an increased risk of extinction, due to climate change during and after the 21st century, particularly as a result of the interaction of climate change with other stressors.
  • High future risks, by noting that natural global climate change at rates lower than the current human-origin climate change has caused significant shifts in ecosystems.
  • extinction of species over the past millions of years. Marine organisms will gradually face lower levels of oxygen and high rates and values for ocean acidification.

Reasons for concern about climate change

Five reasons for concern have been provided to summarize the major risks since the release of the IPCC assessment report. It shows the multipliers of warming (the increase in the world's average surface temperature, with an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide, methane and some other gases in the atmosphere).  The limits of adaptation are for people, economies and ecosystems in all sectors and regions.

The five causes of concern:

These reasons relate to:

Unique and threatened systems:

Some ecosystems and cultures are threatened by climate change, and as warming rises by an additional degree of celsius, the number of unique systems is at risk of serious consequences.

Many systems with limited adaptability, particularly those related to Arctic sea ice and coral reefs, are at very high risk with warming of 2°C.

Extreme weather phenomena:

The risks associated with climate change from extreme events, such as heat waves, heavy rains and coastal floods, and further warming of an additional percentage point, are high.

The distribution of risk effects:

The risks are irregularly distributed between groups of people and between regions, and the risks are usually greater for vulnerable people and communities everywhere.

The risks are already moderate because of regional differences in the recorded impacts of climate change, particularly for crop production.

Global overall impacts:

The risks from global aggregate impacts are moderate in additional warming conditions, by 1 to 2°C and reflect impacts on both the earth's biodiversity and the global economy as a whole.

Large-scale unique phenomena:

As warming increases, some physical and ecological systems are at risk of sudden changes.

What strategies help reduce climate change

  • Strategies and procedures can be followed to shift towards pathways that help recover from the effects of climate change in order to achieve Sustainable developmentAt the same time, it helps to improve livelihoods, social and economic well-being, and effective environmental management.
  • Economic diversification can be an important component of these strategies. The effectiveness of integrated responses can be enhanced through relevant tools, and adequate institutional and human capacity.
  • Integrated responses are particularly important for energy planning and implementation, water,food and energy interactions, biocarbon sequestration, and urban planning, providing significant opportunities for enhancing resilience, reducing emissions and achieving more sustainable development.

Risks of climate change to human health

In some areas, there has been an increase in the number of deaths due to high temperatures, and in others, the number of deaths from cold has decreased. Changes have already been observed in the distribution of some water-borne diseases.

Increasing the costs of society and the economy, damage to property, infrastructure and health entails very high costs for society and the economy. Floods between 1980 and 2011 affected more than 5.5 million people and caused direct economic losses of more than 90,000 million euros. It was particularly affected in sectors that relied heavily on certain temperatures and rainfall levels, such as agriculture, forestry, energy and tourism.

How do we avoid climate change?

Having seen how climate change affects us, it is important to make it clear that climate change cannot be avoided. We can reduce its effects and adapt to its consequences, i.e. we can combat it by applying small-scale and large-scale measures that help curb climate change. These measures are known as climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.

Combating climate change and its impacts is a strategic priority, which is in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially with action against climate change, and the company is working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to contribute to society's progress and respond to key challenges to sustainable development in infrastructure, water and energy, leading to a transition to a low-carbon economy.