Phobia is a Greek word meaning phobia or irrational fear, and it is known in English as phobia, which is a psychological disease in which there is a constant fear of an event, situation, or a certain thing in an irrational way, where the patient fears that something will happen just by thinking about it. Phobias may appear as irrational and excessive fears in response to fear or apprehension.
Fears appear as a state of panic as the patient begins to avoid anything that could lead to a crisis. And Koswas concerns where psychological suffering is constant, for example cancer phobia: no medical examination can reassure the patient that he is not sick.
The most common phobias and fears that we can face
Phobia is a form of exaggerated fear that prevents us from doing what we love. Among the main types of phobia:
Fear of spiders:
The fear of spiders prevents us from going camping for a week, because the fear of meeting the subject of our phobia is stronger than the desire to spend a few days under the stars.
Fear of indoor:
Extreme fear of being indoors. While some people display this fear of being kidnapped or imprisoned as punishment when they were young, others simply witness how phobias take over their lives without being able to stop it.
The big problem with claustrophobia is that those with it are not subject to treatment, which is the reason for the scarcity of psychological counseling in this regard, as people tend to avoid only closed spaces.
This fear is dangerous because it can easily turn into an obsession. It is about showing intense anxiety and an irrational fear of suffering from disease. That is, a person with hypochondria amplifies any change in his body, whether internal or external, and tries to attribute it to a serious disease.
For example, if he detects a mole on his body, he thinks it is cancer, or when he craves sweets, he feels upset and believes that he has diabetes. Hypochondria leads those who suffer from it into a vicious cycle, because through constant awareness of the emotion that disturbs them, it intensifies when it takes on too much volume in their mind.
Fear of flying:
Thinking that any vehicle could be involved in an accident causes the sick person to sweat, throb, confuse, and muscle tension, as he experiences a fear of flying. Whereas, those who suffer from this condition, not only feel fear when boarding the plane, but also accompany them throughout the previous stage.
That is, from the time they pack to the time they show up at the check-in counter, the feeling of anxiety and pain can lead to paralysis .
The fear of heights:
Fear of heights is when we feel an irrational fear of observing landscapes from high places, or when we climb a skyscraper or when we look out of a window. Like all other types of phobias, it is preventive and that is why it hinders the normal development of our life.
People who suffer from agoraphobia can become victims of a panic attack when they are in a high stage. Usually this fear arises from the impossibility of stopping thinking about the occurrence of a danger, which leads us to turn this thought into the center of our lives.
Dark phobia (nyctophobia):
Fear of the dark is normal for girls and boys from 2 to 7 years old, but it will gradually disappear. It is an irrational fear resulting from a distorted perception and anticipation of the dangers lurking in the dark, in both open environments (forest, street, field…) and in closed environments (bedroom, home itself, parking lot, storage room).
Nyctophobia can also arise from trauma or a traumatic experience such as an accident, exposure to abuse, violence , bad memories, or a distorted vision of the dark learned through stories of fear and terror.
Fear of animals:
It is a phobia that is especially common among women. Some animals cause anxiety, such as fear of insects, mice and snakes, respectively. But phobias of birds, dogs, cats and horses are also often encountered. Phobic stimuli can relate to fear of movement, physical appearance, noise, physical contact with the animal, or any of its parts.
Fear of natural elements:
The main phobic elements are: thunderstorms, heights, emptiness, water, and darkness. The degree of fear varies according to the subject’s social limitations.
Fear related to blood:
It is fear associated with everything that circulates around the blood, such as (fear of seeing blood, injections, injuries, medical and surgical procedures, etc.). Often this fear includes visual stimulation, but these patients are often very sensitive to smells such as: blood, hospital odors, etc. They can faint at the sight of the bloodsucker.
Fear of blood and injection has certain physiological characteristics that clearly distinguish it from others: most phobic stimuli cause a rapid heart rate and very rarely fainting, unlike some patients’ fears, so fear of blood and injection is accompanied by a low heart rate and often leads to fainting or short loss very consciousness.
Effects caused by blood phobia:
- It can prevent the injured person from working in some professions: as a doctor, nurse, police, army … etc.
- Unfortunately, some people may discover that they have a phobia the first time they enter the profession … and find themselves forced to change direction.
- But the main problem is undoubtedly the avoidance of blood tests or any form of treatment or invasive tests, which may lead patients to serious neglect of their health.
Symptoms of phobia from a physiological point of view
- Heart rate increase, stomach upset, dizziness, etc. may occur. Although the most common symptoms are redness, tremors and sweating. Many people feel a strong, disabling fear that others will notice these symptoms and think badly of them, and they may develop a specific social phobia, such as erythrophobia (fear of redness).
- On the behavioral level, some people avoid fearful social situations, while others confront them, but they often resort to using safety behaviors, that is, behaviors with which they try to protect themselves in one way or another. For example, look away if you think someone will ask you something, place a hand somewhere if it shakes, and wear thick clothes so that the sweat is not noticeable.
Factors that contribute to a person’s exposure to social phobia
Some people have strict and excessively perfect rules governing their social behavior, such as a person must always have something interesting to say, and he must always be resourceful and speak fluently, perceive social situations as dangerous, because they can lead to other failures.
They point to the catastrophic consequences of acting in a certain way: for example, if I remain silent they will think that I am bored, if they see that I am shivering, they will think that I am stupid, and if they see me anxious they will think that I am incompetent.
Negative beliefs about oneself:
They are self-centered beliefs that are activated in social situations, that is, they will not be chronically activated (I’m stupid, I’m bored, I don’t deserve anything, I’m not interested, etc.).
Various situations that a person with social phobia may fear
- Speak in public.
- Do some actions in front of others (eating, writing, reading, etc.).
- Initiate and maintain conversations (with strangers, with people outside the circle).
- Going to parties and social events, and watching when entering a venue (for example, a cafeteria).
- Talking with authority figures (teachers, presidents, etc.).
- Being with someone you love.
- Talking on the phone.
- Using a public toilet.
A list of some terms for the types of phobia
- Ablutophobia is a fear of bathing, and this phobia is a fear of drowning more than a fear of water.
- Acarophobia Fear of skin parasites and mites.
- Achievemephobia, fear of success.
- Achluophobia, fear of darkness and darkness.
- Aichmophobia Fear of needles and sharp objects (such as scissors, knives, and syringes.
- Acrophobia – Fear of heights, often accompanied by dizziness.
- Administrativophobia, fear of relationships with management and administrative letters.
- Aerodromophobia, fear of flying and air travel.
- Aerophobia- Fear of air and wind.
- Agoraphobia – Fear of public places and crowds, that is, escaping from crowded places.
- Algophobia Fear of Pain.
Other terms include:
- Alopophobia, fear of baldness.
- Amaxophobia, fear of driving.
- Anginaophobia, fear of suffocation, especially angina.
- Angrophobia Fear of Anger.
- Anthropophobia, fear of or being around people, is a form of social phobia.
- Anoptaphobia: Fear of celibacy.
- Aphrophobia – Fear of sexual desire.
- Arithmophobia, fear of numbers.
- Ascensumophobia, fear of elevators.
- Astrophobia, fear of the galaxy and the universe.
- Atelophobia, fear of imperfection.
- Athazagoraphobia, fear of being forgotten.
- Atychiphobia fear of failure.
- Autophobia, fear of loneliness.
- Cardiophobia, fear of developing cardiovascular disease.
- Mysophobia Fear of dirt and contamination with germs.
- Necrophobia, fear of dead bodies.
- Nosocomephobia Fear of hospitals, clinics and health centers in general.
- Philophobia, fear of falling in love or entering into a romantic relationship.
- Telephonophobia, fear of answering the phone.
- Thalassophobia – Fear of the sea and oceans.
- Thanatophobia, fear of death.
- Tokophobia, fear of childbirth.
The risks of developing various phobias
Although both fear and avoidance can manifest in many different ways, they limit the potential for personal development and affect the quality of life in general. A person with this disorder may not participate in friendships or relationships, promote himself in his work or studies, and isolate himself from any social encounter.