Diabetes in young people is one of the patterns that appear in youth and is transmitted genetically from parents to children, due to a change in one of the eleven genes. Diabetes is defined as an abnormally high blood sugar level, as this increase in blood sugar can lead to long-term damage to some organs.
Diabetes affects more than 420 million people around the world. They suffer from about 10% of diabetes in young adults (type 1), and they are insulin dependent while type 2 diabetes affects more than 90% of people with diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes in young people (type 1)
These symptoms usually occur suddenly, within a few days or weeks. Among the cases of high blood sugar are:
- The feeling forms a frequent urge to urinate.
- Extreme thirst
- Increased appetite paradoxically linked to weight loss.
- Sometimes bad mouth smell due to stomach pain.
- Fatigue and sometimes coma, which is an emergency situation that occurs when there is no insulin entering glucose into cells and the body can no longer use it for energy. Instead it uses fatty acids and produces acetone, which acidifies the blood and sugar the brain, called ketoacidosis .
The most common type of diabetes
Of these types:
Type 1 diabetes (diabetes mellitus in young people)
It is called insulin dependent, and this disease usually occurs before the age of thirty-five, especially in children, adolescents and young adults, and the reason is not justified, and perhaps because the immune system no longer recognizes the cells producing insulin and destroys them, which leads to a decrease or even complete absence of insulin secretion Thus, it causes high blood sugar.
Type 2 diabetes
It is not insulin dependent, and this type occurs most often in adults, between the ages of fifty-five and sixty-five years of age, and it is caused by insufficient secretion of insulin and insensitivity of the cell to its work. So this disease can appear at any age.
Characteristics of diabetes mellitus in young people
As we have four characteristics, including:
- Most often, diabetes appears before the age of 25.
- Juvenile sugar is transmitted through genetics across generations.
- Following an appropriate diet that helps treat young diabetes, in addition to some medications and light doses of insulin.
- Young people with diabetes often have a normal weight.
Factors that cause diabetes in young people
Knowing the risk factors for diabetes makes it possible to try to correct them and thus avoid the onset of the disease. Among these factors:
- Genetic factors.
- A diet very high in fats and sugars.
- Unstable lifestyle, high cholesterol, smoking, and cardiovascular disease.
- Weight gain, especially increase in the abdomen.
All of these factors are included in the definition of metabolic syndrome that includes diabetes.
Complications of diabetes in young adults (type 1)
Diabetes in young people may cause many complications in the body’s organs over time that threaten the patient’s life, and complications of diabetes in young people include:
- Cardiovascular disease, it increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
- Nerve damage, the accumulation of sugar in the blood causes damage to the walls of the blood vessels that supply the nerves, and if it is not controlled, it causes loss of sensation in the end in the extremities, and also causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
- Kidney damage, it causes the destruction of blood vessels, and in the event of severe kidney damage, this will lead to kidney failure or untreatable kidney disease.
- Damage to the eyes, which damages the blood vessels in the retina, and thus causes vision problems or may cause blindness.
- Damage to the nerves of the feet, and if the patient suffers small cuts or ulcers, they may aggravate into a serious infection that leads to amputation of part of the foot.
- Mouth and skin problems. Having type 1 diabetes increases the risk of developing skin and mouth infections, including fungal and bacterial infections.
- Pregnancy complications, including: birth defects, risks of childbirth, or an increased risk of miscarriage, if diabetes is not controlled during pregnancy.
Treating diabetes in young people
Diabetes in young adults (type 1) is treated with insulin injections. It is also necessary to monitor for risk factors such as being overweight, smoking, high cholesterol and drinking alcohol. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with medication, but as it progresses, insulin therapy may be necessary. In addition, an annual visit to the diabetes specialist is recommended, who can improve treatment and guide the patient in case of complications.
Also, helping a dietitian can be of great value in giving personalized advice such as: suitable recipes, preparation and cooking methods, menu ideas, simple methods of counting calories..etc.
Diabetes in young people and diet
Diet is the number one key to managing diabetes, as the health benefits of a balanced diabetes diet have been scientifically proven. People with diabetes should choose high-fiber foods such as: fruits (apples, pears), green vegetables, whole grains (barley and cracked durum wheat semolina), legumes (chickpeas, lentils, peas or Chinese beans), and dried fruits or seeds. In addition to raw fats, which are a source of essential fatty acids (sunflower oils, rapeseed, olives, nuts …) and fresh aromatic herbs or spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, garlic). A natural alternative to added sugar, sweeteners, or dried fruit in moderate amounts.
In the end ..
To avoid causing diabetes or slowing its progression, you should exercise regularly, control weight, monitor diet, and regulate blood pressure. Thus diabetes management aims to regulate blood sugar to avoid metabolic complications, in addition to long-term vascular and neurological disturbances that can affect the entire body. And by relying on the rules of healthy living.